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Hydrodynamics considers the relationship between the trajectory, the outlet contour and the outlet velocity during flow from tanks. These considerations have practical applications in hydraulic engineering or in the design of bottom outlets in dams, for example.
HM 150.09 allows a user to study and visualise the profile of a water jet. Additionally, the contraction coefficient can be determined as a characteristic for different contours.
The experimental unit includes a transparent tank, a point gauge and a panel for visualising the jet paths. An interchangeable insert is installed in the tank's water outlet to facilitate the investigation of various openings. Four inserts with different diameters and contours are provided along with the unit.
To visualise the trajectory, the issued water jet is measured via a point gauge that consists of movable rods. The rods are positioned depending on the profile of the water jet. This results in a trajectory that is transferred to the panel.
The tank contains an adjustable overflow and a scale. In this way, a precise adjustment and accurate reading of the fill level are possible. The experimental unit is positioned easily and securely on the work surface of the HM 150 base module. The water is supplied and the flow rate measured by HM 150. Alternatively, the experimental unit can be operated by the laboratory supply.
The well-structured instructional material sets out the fundamentals and provides a step-by-step guide through the experiments.
Learning Objectives / Experiments
- recording the trajectory of the water jet at different outlet velocities
- study of how the level in the tank affects the outlet velocity
- determination of the contraction coefficient for different contours and diameters
- comparison of the actual and theoretical outlet velocity