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Pressure losses occur in pipe systems as a result of friction and turbulence. In practice, the use of shut-off valves and fittings causes pressure losses that need to be taken into consideration when designing pipe networks.
The HL 113 unit can be used to investigate the pressure losses of different shut-off valves and fittings. The pipe elements used are commercially standard components in heating and sanitary engineering. The clear panel is mounted on a sturdy, movable frame.
The trainer consists of five pipe sections, in each of which different shut-off valves and fittings are fitted. The pipe sections can be individually selected via ball valves.
One of the pipe sections is transparent with a transparent ball valve in order to visualise the flow conditions upstream and downstream of a shut-off valve. The flow is adjusted using valves in the inlet and outlet and read on a rotameter.
The pressure measuring points in the pipe system are designed as annular chambers and are located directly upstream and downstream of the valves and fittings, ensuring a precise pressure measurement. The sensors are connected in pairs to a differential pressure meter and the respective differential pressure read on the display.
The well-structured instructional material sets out the fundamentals and provides a step-by-step guide through the experiments.
Learning Objectives / Experiments
- pressure losses in valves and fittings
- measuring the pressure difference
- effect of the valve orifice shape on the pressure loss
- effect of the flow velocity
- determination of resistance coefficients
- comparison between experiment and calculation